Already, by this time he he had revised the theory of history that came to be associated with his name and with the first edition of Das Kapital. He had already begun to feel that that unilinear view of history was unsustainable and that there were societies that really did not have the private property form (and also capitalist development) of the kind that
Really, it is not his theory of communism that is at issue here but, at some level, the more important question of whether all societies must follow the same historical trajectory. The theory of communism is premised on the assumption that there is a universal history of human society that is ushered in by capitalism and socialism and communism only build on that. This is what is really at stake here.